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R - Function

Certainly! Let's dive deeper into the concept of functions in R and provide a detailed explanation with code examples.


In R, a function is defined using the function keyword, followed by the function name, arguments (if any), and the body of the function. Here's the general syntax:



function_name <- function(arg1, arg2, ...) {
  # Function body
  # Code to perform the desired task
  # Return a value (optional)
}

To illustrate this, let's create a function called calculate_mean that calculates the mean of a numeric vector.



calculate_mean <- function(numbers) {
  sum <- sum(numbers)
  count <- length(numbers)
  mean_value <- sum / count
  return(mean_value)
}
  

In this example, the function calculate_mean takes a single argument numbers, which is a numeric vector. Inside the function body, we perform the following steps:


1. Calculate the sum of the numbers in the vector using sum(numbers). The result is stored in the variable sum.
2. Determine the number of elements in the vector using length(numbers). The result is stored in the variable count.
3. Calculate the mean by dividing the sum by the count: mean_value <- sum / count.
4. Finally, we use the return statement to specify that the value of mean_value should be returned from the function.

Now, let's use the calculate_mean function with a sample numeric vector:



values <- c(2, 4, 6, 8, 10)
result <- calculate_mean(values)
print(result)  # Output: 6

In this example, we create a numeric vector called values containing the numbers 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10.


We then call the calculate_mean function and pass values as the argument. The function performs the calculation and returns the mean value, which is stored in the variable result.


Finally, we print the value of result, which gives us the output 6.


Functions in R can have any number of arguments, including none. Additionally, they can have default argument values, allowing you to provide values for some arguments while leaving others optional.


By using functions, you can encapsulate complex tasks, make your code modular, and improve its readability and reusability. Functions play a crucial role in R programming as they allow you to organize and structure your code efficiently.

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